Physical abuse (Total 427140 Papers Found)

OBJECTIVE Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a biliary disorder with a recognized pathophysiology and demonstrated surgical treatment. We sought to examine whether women with SOD were overrepresented on measures of somatization, sexual and physical abuse, socially compliant attitudes, and familial psychiatric illness. METHOD We matched 33 women with SOD to 33 normal controls by age, sex, and race, and, with a case-controlled cross-sectional questionnaire, compared the groups on the study v ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate and compare the demographic and psychosocial profiles of women with chronic pelvic pain, chronic pain in a different site, and those with no history of pain with specific reference to a history of sexual abuse. DESIGN A prospective comparative study. SETTING Pelvic Pain Clinic at Leicester General Hospital NHS Trust, Pain Management Clinic at Leicester Royal Infirmary NHS Trust and two General Practices. PARTICIPANTS Thirty women with chronic pelvic pain, 30 women ...
This study sought to broaden research findings linking maltreatment to sexualized behaviors by investigating whether maltreatment experiences other than sexual abuse predict such behaviors. The sample included 690 children without reported sexual abuse histories who are participants in the LONGSCAN Consortium, a prospective multisite investigation of childhood maltreatment. Child Protective Service reports before age 8 years and caregiver reports on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory-II at age ...
Occupational violence and aggression are common in general practice. This study examined occupational violence and aggression against GPs in terms of prevalence and predictive factors, such as sex of GP, and practice location. Over half of the GPs sampled had experienced at least one form of violence and aggression; more female than male GPs experienced sexual harassment; and there was no difference in the number of metropolitan and rural GPs who had experienced violence and aggression. Predicto ...
The prevailing lay wisdom associates emotional stress with sudden death, and recent medical reports have linked massive catecholamine surges with demonstrable cardiac dysfunction that can be either reversible or fatal. This association does not strictly prove causality, and the question remains open for additional scientific investigation. From the legal viewpoint, however, the issue has been resolved, and case law clearly holds that sudden emotional stress can cause death. More significantly, c ...
Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced self-esteem. Involvement in youth programs moderated the direct effect. Community service moderated the indirect effect. Results indicate 2 hours per week of inv ...
The major risks and sources of vulnerability, to which street children may be exposed, relate to shelter, safety and nutri­ tion. Specific health risks associated with untreated ill­ nesses and injuries, glue sniffing and sexual activities, are also threatening to them. In particular, street children are in danger from: • physical exposure to cold and damp, due to lack of shelter and insufficient protective clothing; • pedestrian traffic accidents, particularly (but not only) following glu ...
This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative hea ...
Depressive symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 246 male juvenile sex offenders using the Beck Depression Inventory. Of these participants, the racial composition was black = 147, Hispanic = 62, Caucasian = 34. Three adolescents elected not to identify their racial origin. Subjects were divided according to their self-reports of having been sexually or physically abused. The mean Beck score across all subjects was 14.3, a value markedly higher than published norms and indicative of mild de ...
OBJECTIVE The study investigated whether perceptions of social support in adulthood partially mediated the associations between childhood experiences (i.e., receipt of physical abuse and levels of early social support) and adult risk for child physical abuse. METHOD Participants included 598 general population adults who completed self-report measures designed to assess childhood physical abuse, perceptions of early and current social support, and risk factors for child physical abuse. Structu ...
Substantial evidence indicates a link between exposure to family violence in childhood and troubled social relationships. We draw on attachment and social-cognitive theory to formulate a model of the mechanisms underlying this association. The model proposes that early experiences of overt rejection (e.g., physical maltreatment) or covert rejection (e.g., emotional neglect) are internalized as sensitivity to rejection. In this study, we operationalize sensitivity to rejection in social-cognitive ...
Elder abuse occurs most commonly in residential rather than institutional settings, and the most likely perpetrators are known by the victim. Although a defined set of risk factors has not been developed, careful questioning and assessment can help determine whether a patient is at increased risk. The common types of elder maltreatment include caregiver and self-neglect, emotional and psychological abuse, fiduciary exploitation, and physical abuse. Assessment consists of comprehensive physical e ...
BACKGROUND Children born of war are a common phenomenon of conflict. In the aftermath of World War II, more than 200,000 German occupation children (GOC) were fathered by occupation soldiers and born to local women. GOC often grew up under difficult conditions and showed high prevalence rates of mental disorders even decades later. METHODS Experiences of childhood maltreatment and their association with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatization in GOC (N = 146) are inv ...
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess whether physical abuse during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of giving birth to a low-birthweight (LBW) infant. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 1143 aboriginal women were recruited into this study. The Abuse Assessment Screen was used to collect information regarding maternal physical abuse, and infants' birth weights were obtained from hospital medical records. Multiple logistic regression was u ...
Numerous and heterogeneous symptoms of maladjustment have been documented among victims of physical abuse. Much of the well-controlled, theoretically guided research is rooted in methodology designed to search for group differences between abused children and a comparison group. Given the recognized methodological problems in constructing appropriate comparison groups for abused children, this study is designed to examine alternative methodological approaches. The purpose of the study is to util ...
Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged >18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed inte ...
EVEN THOUGH acts of child abuse have been committed throughout history (Zigler & Hall, 1989), widespread concern over child abuse as a significant social problem began as recently as the 1960s. Maltreated children have been an increasing focus of protection efforts, which may be due to frequent and intense attention from the media, general public, legislators, and health, mental health, and social service professionals (Hansen, Conaway, & Christopher, 1990). Increased attention to child maltreat ...
OBJECTIVE To assess the socioeconomic, demographic, and reproductive factors associated with physical aggression during pregnancy, and the negative outcomes for the newborn in two groups of women: adolescents and young adults. METHOD Cross-sectional study with a sample of 8,961 mothers who were admitted to hospitals of the city of Rio de Janeiro during delivery. To test the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions, the chi-squared test was used. Odds ratio and confidence intervals were estimat ...
OBJECTIVE To examine the levels of satisfaction and stress of Australian psychiatrists. METHOD A survey was mailed in December 2002 to all Fellows of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists residing in Australia; 1039 out of 2059 (50%) returned the questionnaire. RESULTS The large majority of respondents (79%) were proud of being a psychiatrist. Most (88%) reported being satisfied with their work. Reasons for dissatisfaction varied between public and private psychiatris ...
LEARNING OBJECTIVES After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the prevalence of early emotional trauma in patients with bipolar disorder (BD)• Assess the impact of these traumas on patients and on their development of BD OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic literature review to (1) evaluate the prevalence of early emotional trauma (EET) in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and the impact of these traumas on the development of the disorder, and (2) ...
Individuals who experience child physical orsexual abuse are at greater risk for adjustment problems. However, the heterogeneity of symptomatology observed across individuals following child abuse suggests that outcome is determined by multiplefactors. The authors review literature examining the relationships among childhood physical or sexual abuse, attributions, and adjustment. Implications for application and future research are discussed. ...
Women (N=171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretre ...
Eighty-four incarcerated child molesters and 95 nonoffender comparison subjects were interviewed. All of the nonoffenders and 93% of the child molesters had been sexually abused in childhood. The prisoners were more socially disadvantaged as children and had received more verbal and physical abuse. The prisoners were more accepting of their abuse in the sense of not understanding or accepting that it was aberrant behavior but rather thinking that it was a commonplace, inevitable, and consequentl ...
OBJECTIVE The study used a series of vignettes to investigate how the presence of three disabilities (cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities) affects the processes and outcomes of child abuse investigations at two levels of child injury severity (moderate, severe). METHOD Seventy-five CPS case workers completed study surveys and answered questions in response to a series of eight vignettes. RESULTS This study revealed differences in the responses of CPS ...
In a sample of 242 women in treatment for severe mental illness (SMI), we used regression analysis to test the hypothesis that lifetime physical and sexual abuse would correlate with self-harm behaviors (thoughts of self-harm and suicide, self-harming behaviors, and suicide attempts) when controlling for psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and negative appraisals of trauma. Lifetime physical abuse and alcohol use were the only significant factors in the model. Women with SMI should be screene ...
OBJECTIVES In younger populations childhood sexual and physical abuse have been found to be associated with suicidal ideation. Such associations have not been examined among older adults. SETTING Data from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R). PARTICIPANTS Older adults (60+, N = 1610) from the NCS-R sample. MEASUREMENTS Suicidal ideation occurring after the age of 60 was assessed. Early-life factors were assessed including childhood physical and sexual abuse and parent's inte ...
The emerging research on child physical abuse (CPA) is reviewed herewith. Incidence of CPA may be as high as 11% for adolescents in the US. Child physical abuse survivors vary in their symptom picture of severity and type. Children who have been physically abused may experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or disruptive behavior disorders. Additionally, developmental disturbances include problems with attachment, social skills, and affect r ...
OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). METHODS AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and family history; those with children were asked questions about their parenting experiences. Regression models estimated the relationships between child ...
A translation into Spanish of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory was administered to a group of perpetrators of maltreatment and physical abuse (n = 66) and to a demographically representative sample (n = 829) of the general population of the País Vasco (Spain). Results were studied with item analysis, regression, factorial analysis with the total sample so as to determine the descriptive characteristic of the Spanish version. Since this inventory is designed specifically for the detection of ...
Based on data from a probability sample of 912 Latino gay men in 3 U.S. cities, a multivariate model of sexual risk was tested, including experiences of homophobia, racism, and poverty as predictors. Participants reported multiple instances of verbal and physical abuse, rude mistreatment, and discrimination on account of their sexual orientation and their race or ethnicity. Many reported experiences of poverty, such as inability to pay for basic necessities of food or shelter. Men who reported m ...
This study assessed college men's reactions immediately following and 2 months after completing self-report measures of interpersonal violence. Results showed that 4.3% of men experienced immediate negative emotional reactions. Greater immediate negative reactions were related to personal benefits to research participation, anticipation of future distress, experiences of childhood physical abuse and psychological abuse/neglect, and physical abuse perpetration either in adolescence or adulthood. ...
Child maltreatment and the responsibility of heath care professionals to assist in prevention and diagnosis is currently center stage in the United Kingdom. This subject has a very large literature base. Anesthetists were one of the first groups to have specific guidance on this subject, and key competencies are now part of the core curriculum for our trainees. This article seeks to briefly define maltreatment and provide statistics that outline the scale of the problem, and includes discussion ...
BACKGROUND Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. METHOD We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 ru ...
  • Mary Ann Curry,
  • Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN
  • 1998
OBJECTIVE To describe the association between abuse during pregnancy and substance use and psychosocial stress. DESIGN Prospective study of pregnant women. SETTING Urban prenatal clinics. PARTICIPANTS 1,937 predominately low-income, ethnically diverse women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES(S) Three questions from the Abuse Assessment Screen were used to measure abuse. For the total sample, 25.7% reported physical abuse in the past year, 10.5% physical abuse since pregnancy, and 4.5% sexual abuse i ...
BACKGROUND Al-Anon Family Groups, a 12-step mutual-help program for people concerned about another person's drinking, is the most widely used form of help by Concerned Others. OBJECTIVES This longitudinal study examined newcomers' outcomes of attending Al-Anon. Aims were to better understand early gains from Al-Anon to inform efforts in the professional community to facilitate concerned others' attendance of and engagement in Al-Anon. METHODS We compared two groups of Al-Anon newcomers who c ...
Of 125 consecutive male patients at an adult psychiatric outpatient clinic, 48% reported histories of sexual abuse and/or physical abuse. The mean scores on the global severity index of the SCL-90-R at the first visit were significantly higher for those who reported histories of abuse than for those who had no such history. Childhood abuse also was associated with high levels of psychiatric symptoms in these men. ...
Violence against children has been until now recognised as physical aggression escalating from corporal punishment, hard physical labour to homicide. Nowadays child abuse is considered as maltreatment occurring in four different aspects: physical abuse, psychological abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Child abuse is difficult to disclose, as it is concealed both by the perpetrators and the victims. The child is afraid and at the same time, almost always ashamed of looking for help. The victim freq ...
OBJECTIVES We estimated prevalence and assessed correlates of emotional, physical, sexual, and financial mistreatment and potential neglect (defined as an identified need for assistance that no one was actively addressing) of adults aged 60 years or older in a randomly selected national sample. METHODS We compiled a representative sample by random digit dialing across geographic strata. We used computer-assisted telephone interviewing to standardize collection of demographic, risk factor, and ...
A common theme identified in empirical studies and clinical reports of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths is the chronic stress that is created by the verbal and physical abuse they receive from peers and adults. This article reviews the verbal and physical abuse that threatens the well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. This response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several ...
The goal of this study was to examine the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood, poverty, parental substance abuse problems and parental psychiatric problems with disability due to physical health problems in a community sample of women. We included 4,243 women aged 15-64 years from the Ontario Mental Health Supplement in the analysis. The associations were tested by multiple logistic regression. Ten percent of women had a disability due to physical health problems. Among women w ...
Little is known about the impact of sexual or physical abuse history on response to alcohol treatment. This prospective study investigated the relationships between sexual and physical abuse histories, participants' characteristics, and response to inpatient alcohol treatment. Forty-one women and 59 men were assessed monthly for 1 year following hospitalization for alcohol dependence. Survival analyses showed that sexual abuse history was associated with shorter times to first drink and relapse. ...
The Partnerships for Families project is a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the implementation of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT), an evidence-based treatment for family conflict, coercion, and aggression, including child physical abuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program in this model, 182 community practitioners from 10 agencies were randomized to receive AF-CBT training (n = 90) using a learning community model (workshops, cons ...
BACKGROUND Childhood abuse is linked to suicide. Potential pathways include the increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders and the contribution of abuse to suicide capability. The current study compared the effects of childhood non-violent and violent abuse in the prediction of suicide attempts, and examined the potential mediated effects of psychiatric disorders. METHODS Data from the National Comorbidity Surveys were obtained. At baseline, assessments of childhood non-violen ...
OBJECTIVE There were two aims: First, to determine whether sexual or physical abuse in childhood or adolescence increases the risk of developing bulimia nervosa, and second, to see whether any increase in risk is specific to bulimia nervosa rather than being common to psychiatric disorders in general. METHOD A case control design with individual matching was used. There were two related case control comparisons based on community samples. One hundred and two young adult women with bulimia nerv ...
Abstract Two studies examined the association of gender and occupational group (nursing versus non-nursing) with perceived risk of abuse (sexual harassment and verbal and physical abuse) as well as the relationship of perceived abuse risk with burnout and sense of community. Study 1, comprising of two settings (tertiary care hospital, N = 3,062; psychiatric hospital, N = 383), found gender and occupational group associated with perceived risk of abuse (women felt greater risk than men; nurses ...
This study compared two common questionnaire formats for eliciting retrospective child abuse reports. Self-defined formats ask participants whether they were abused, using that term. Researcher-defined formats ask about particular abuse-related events, allowing researchers to specify criteria for identifying abuse histories. Adjustment was measured by self-report inventories of depressive and posttraumatic symptoms and global self-esteem. Participants were 542 college women and men. Significantl ...
This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, highe ...
THE MECHANISMS OF TRANSMISSION: EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF CHILDHOOD INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE ACROSS GENERATIONS by Amber Nemeth, M.A. Advisor: Professor Denise Hien, Ph.D. This study examined the direct relationship between maternal exposure to childhood interpersonal violence (sexual and/or physical abuse) and behavioral problems in her preto early-adolescent children. It also examined whether maternal aggression (psychological and physical aggression) and emotion dysregulation (lifetime PTSD diag ...